In addition to causing precipitation of soluble molecules and flocculation of molecules in suspension, antibodies can also clump together cells or particles e. Agglutination can be used as an indicator of the presence of antibodies against bacteria or red blood cells. Microtiter plates have an array of wells to hold small volumes of reagents and to observe reactions e.
A spherical polymer particle in the colloidal size range, latex beads are formed from amorphous polymer usually polystyrene. A polystyrene chain is a linear hydrocarbon chain with a benzene ring attached to every second carbon atom. The aromatic rings control the way the chains coil and entangle and dominate the space; when a model of the particle surface is viewed all that can be seen is randomly stacked benzene rings with an occasional chain end sticking out.
The Particle Filtration Efficiency PFE test evaluates the nonviable particle retention or filtration efficiency of filter media and other filtration devices at sub-micron levels. This test is performed on face masks and all filter material that allows 1 cubic foot per minute CFM flow to pass through it. Nelson Labs offers a high level of expertise in PFE testing and is one of the only companies to offer this test.
A latex fixation testalso called a latex agglutination assay or test LA assay or testis an assay used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests use the patient's antigen - antibody immune response. This response occurs when the body detects a pathogen and forms an antibody specific to an identified antigen a protein configuration present on the surface of the pathogen. Agglutination tests, specific to a variety of pathogens, can be designed and manufactured for clinicians by coating microbeads of latex with pathogen-specific antigens or antibodies.
The method of latex particle precipitation has been applied to the detection of circulating antibody to a crude extract of thyroid. The sensitivity of the method is intermediate between that of the agar diffusion and the tanned cell haemagglutination techniques. If only the grosser degrees of latex precipitation are taken as being significant, the method would appear to be of equal value as the agar diffusion test in the diagnosis of lymphadenoid goitre.
I describe the use of latex agglutination as a simple readout for DNA hybridization assays. Latex agglutination is extremely simple and chemically robust, and latex particles have been used as a label in DNA hybridization 5. Here I show that simple agglutination of particles is an efficient measure of DNA hybridization, one that is insensitive to the presence of proteases, detergents, and solvents.
Agglutination is the process that occurs when an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called agglutinin and is commonly used in blood grouping. Latex agglutination test, also called latex fixation, is a diagnostic study that is widely used as a laboratory method to identify certain antibodies and antigens. The test uses a variety of body fluids including blood, urine, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid, which are dependable on what type of sample is needed.
However, it has not been clear to what extent particle size affects the response. In contrast, nm LxB did not induce either of the responses. The same cellular responses were also observed in primary microglia cells. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Click on image for details. The present study aimed to review the results of microscopic examination, routine culture and antigen detection by latex particle agglutination test LPATin order to evaluate the diagnostic value of the LPAT in establishing the aetiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. LPAT was done in 65 clinically suspected meningitis cases ranging from 5 days to 60 years of age and was compared with culture and Gram stain.