About Translations. Normal cell division in all cells, except germ cells, occurs by 2 mechanical processes that initially divide the nucleus then the cell cytoplasm. This process produces two daughter cells that should be genetically identical to the parent cell.
Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Actively dividing eukaryote cells pass through a series of stages known collectively as the cell cycle : two gap phases G1 and G2 ; an S for synthesis phase, in which the genetic material is duplicated; and an M phase, in which mitosis partitions the genetic material and the cell divides.
New babies are both very like and very unlike adults. Most cell development and differentiation occur prior to a baby's birth, and baby stem cells, cells that can become different types of tissue, are essentially the same as adult stem cells. The cells and tissues of a baby are different from those of an adult, though.
In unicellular organisms, cell division is the means of reproduction; in multicellular organisms, it is the means of tissue growth and maintenance. Survival of the eukaryotes depends upon interactions between many cell types, and it is essential that a balanced distribution of types be maintained. This is achieved by the highly regulated process of cell proliferation.
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cellsfound throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Scientific interest in adult stem cells is centered on their ability to divide or self-renew indefinitely, and generate all the cell types of the organ from which they originate, potentially regenerating the entire organ from a few cells. They have mainly been studied in humans and model organisms such as mice and rats.
NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Cell Biology. New York: W.
The adult dentate gyrus continuously generates new neurons that endow the brain with increased plasticity, helping to cope with changing environmental and cognitive demands. The process leading to the birth of new neurons spans several precursor stages and is the result of a coordinated series of fate decisions, which are tightly controlled by extrinsic signals. Many of these signals act through modulation of cell cycle CC components, not only to drive proliferation, but also for linage commitment and differentiation.
Scientists have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life. The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain can generate new nerve cells throughout life.
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Within multicellular organisms, tissues are organized communities of cells that work together to carry out a specific function. The exact role of a tissue in an organism depends on what types of cells it contains.
This revelation could potentially open avenues to a greater understanding of the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in tumors, and their possible regulation by means of physical forces. Publishing in the June edition of Nature Cell Biologythe research group of ICREA professor Xavier Trepat, group leader at IBEC and associate professor at the University of Barcelona UBdescribe how the mechanical state of epithelial tissues — the continuous sheets of cells that cover all the exposed surfaces of the body — is related to the cell cycle and cell division. Read more…. All multicellular organisms are formed from a single cell, the zygote.