Jugular veins bring deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart. There are two sets of external and internal veins. The external jugular vein receives the greater part of the blood from the cranium and the deep parts of the face.
The anterior facial veins ensure the venous drainage of the face and have been used as main venous pedicles for facial transplantations. The facial vein starts at the medial angle of the eye like the angular vein. Then, it runs obliquely behind the facial artery, crosses over the body of the mandible, and drains into the internal jugular vein through the thyrolinguofacial trunk.
The ophthalmic veins latin: venae opthalmicae are venous blood vessels that drain the orbital cavity. The ophthalmic veins include the superior ophthalmic vein and the inferior ophthalmic vein, and occasionally, the medial ophthalmic vein and the middle ophthalmic vein may be present. The ophthalmic veins connect the facial veins and intracranial veins.
At the medial canthus of the eye there is a communication with the ophthalmic veins, which drain into the cavernous sinus. Blood from the frontal scalp normally flows via the facial veinhowever if flow via this passageway is occluded e. A second communication is via the pterygoid plexus. The deep facial vein passes between the facial vein and drains into the pterygoid plexus anterior to the masseter muscle.
The facial artery external maxillary artery in older texts is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the superficial face. The facial artery arises in the carotid triangle from the external carotid artery a little above the lingual artery and, sheltered by the ramus of the mandiblepasses obliquely up beneath the digastric and stylohyoid muscles, over which it arches to enter a groove on the posterior surface of the submandibular gland. It then curves upward over the body of the mandible at the antero-inferior angle of the masseter ; passes forward and upward across the cheek to the angle of the mouth, then ascends along the side of the nose, and ends at the medial commissure of the eye, under the name of the angular artery.
The facial vein or anterior facial vein is a relatively large vein in the human face. It commences at the side of the root of the nose and is a direct continuation of the angular vein where it also receives a small nasal branch. It lies behind the facial artery and follows a less tortuous course.
Congenital anomalies of the venous drainage of the eyelids are relatively rare. Passive hyperemia of the lids due to overfilling of the venous circulation may be an important sign of deeper pathology in the orbit, for example thrombosis of the orbital veins or the cavernous sinus, an arteriovenous aneurysm, hemangiomas, or a tumor of the orbit. Rarely the obstruction is more remote as at the jugular vein.
The cavernous sinus is a paired dural venous sinus located within the cranial cavity. Each cavernous sinus has a close anatomical relationship with several key structures in the head, and is arguably the most clinically important venous sinus. The dural venous sinuses are channels between the two layers of dura mater which are responsible for the venous drainage of the brain, skull, orbit and internal ear.