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The rectoanal inhibitory reflex RAIR also known as the anal sampling mechanismanal sampling reflexrectosphincteric reflexor anorectal sampling reflex is a reflex characterized by a transient involuntary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter in response to distention of the rectum. The ability of the rectum to discriminate between gaseous, liquid and solid contents is essential to the ability to voluntarily control defecation. The RAIR allows for voluntary flatulation to occur without also eliminating solid waste, irrespective of the presence of fecal material in the anal canal.
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We have performed hemorrhoidal artery ligation at our department since and have further refined this technique through the introduction of Doppler-guided recto-anal repair DG-RARa combination of hemorrhoidal artery ligation and a new procedure that we developed and have called transanal rectal mucopexy. DG-RAR allows us to perform both hemorrhoidal artery ligation and mucopexy according to the anopexy technique, while still avoiding the dentate line. For this purpose, the hemorrhoidal artery ligation proctoscope was adapted and provided with a slotted window, which is primarily closed during hemorrhoidal artery ligation.
Rectal hyposensitivity commonly causes anorectal disorders but its underlying mechanism is unknown. We performed stepwise graded balloon distensions of the rectum in 30 subjects with constipation and rectal hyposensitivity and 23 healthy controls. Thresholds for first sensation, desire and urgency to defecate were assessed.
A rectovaginal fistula is an abnormal connection between the lower portion of your large intestine — your rectum — and your vagina. Bowel contents can leak through the fistula, allowing gas or stool to pass through your vagina. The condition may cause emotional distress and physical discomfort, which can impact self-esteem and intimacy. Talk with your doctor if you have signs and symptoms of a rectovaginal fistula, even if it's embarrassing.
With the scanning objective, note the regular appearance of the intestinal mucosa with crypts and the lack of villi. Also note the abundance of goblet cells; these features are diagnostic. This is a good slide in which to review the structure of arteries, veins and the peripheral autonomic plexus. Note the cells with eosinophilic granules enteroendocrine cells in the lining epithelium.